challenges of regional integration

The creation of a common internal market and of common external economic policies, especially as regards trade, has been a priority in European integration. I welcome the synthetic framework of this conference. challenges and prospects of regional integration in africa: a case study of east african community by david ngochi ngari reg. Globally the political debates seem to be moving from a discussion of separate crises to a discussion of inter-connected crises: of the finance sector, the world economy, political governance, food, water, development and climate. startxref In societies atomised socially and empoverished culturally by late capitalism and consumerism nation state are often seen as competitors. This article looks at the global and regional integration of the Indian Ocean economy, with a view to identifying challenges to greater integration. * Regional, elected parliaments can play an important role in a new regionalism. Risks and Challenges, (ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly's Committee on Political Affairs on the issue of 'Lessons to be learnt from the European model of regional integration for the ACP countries', ACP House, Brussels, 13 September 2007). In this spirit I want to join the large number of people on all continents who enthusiastically welcome the recent wave of positive developments in Latin America, including also many smaller countries, such as Bolivia, Ecuador and Paraguay. It is true in a limited sense. GLOBAL AND HISTORICAL PREMISES OF REGIONAL COOPERATION, Regional integration in the context of collapsing neo-liberalism, authoritarian capitalism and the search for cultural alternatives. More focused and gradual steps that are carefully executed at the domestic level may be the best place to start. Wallgren is the head of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Four: the political logic of democratic regionalism by the people and for the people should be pluralistic and decentred. Political, cultural and moral initiative that will inspire hope on all continents can and needs to come from many places. 0000002594 00000 n 264 0 obj <>stream Some elements of the ALBA perspective, as expressed by some people, reflect the perspective of 1950’s-style national capitalist industrialization, which is probably not suitable for the current period. 6. The Indian Ocean is an increasingly important component of the world economy. The most interesting efforts at integration, in the view of many, are those taking place in Latin America, among them Trade Treaty of the Peoples and ALBA or the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas to which eight countries now belong. regional integration is ‘signifi cantly challenged’ as an approach to the sustainable development of economies. In a new kind of regionalism special zones for people’s power from below can be created, where people and nature are protected against corporations and states. 0000004040 00000 n ��6�}������ Ϋ�m����p2�,��]�j3���z�/4-`@1:gQ���z�$�bݣb!7.v˟�X�S�m���eĠ[��Q��$q�y��"�&K��ѥ��du�-������i�^m�n�����L������k#�jk���ʓ/Q%-�5����..�g���s]�ó�A�ꢔڿT��Ɉ/�.�َ�t-�Yf�ŢZM���]&)s�,� �5 3, pp. CARICOM: Challenges and Opportunities for Caribbean Economic Integration Summary In 1973, the smaller, largely English-speaking countries of the Eastern Caribbean launched the Caribbean Comm unity and Common Market (CARICOM), an integration plan intende d to coordinate a nd enhance the collective economic and social development of 15 countries. I propose these as some of the key questions to guide our discussion of regional integration over the next two days. �㙆��W�8�%Ѫ~�a :��N���F���@�s�`���L��6>��yd78M,x���Qiej�q� �_�����ACy�4!��csb�#G!����Y*�f�˩��{u]����� xref 0000008429 00000 n * The European experience shows that regional cooperation can be effective in enhancing the power and  economic and social status of oppressed minorities and underprivileged regions. Because of the post-war technocratic logic of EU-integration the democratic crisis in Europe is also very deep-seated. Regional integration is seen as a rational response to the difficulties faced by a continent with many small national markets and landlocked countries. In the EU the centralising and liberalising Lissabon treaty is back on track. For regional integration in Africa to be a success, Africa’s leaders will have to move beyond grand gestures and abstract visions. 2. The example of the European Union shows that even when integration is rigidly designed to create a Union of just one kind of members the end-result will be something else. People’s Agenda for Alternative Regionalisms, * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay). Simultaneously deregulation, privatisation and trade liberalisation are all on a hold or they are rolled back. In reality the question of regional integration is also related to an extraordinary variety of economic, political and socio-cultural issues. H�4�W[SQ��AQ������ 12. 2007. European integration has gained popular support and political legitimacy from two great promises. Globalization has ended in massive failure. Wallgren is the head of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Helsinki, Finland. 1. Situación de la integración eléctrica en América del Sur. The global trend in the last years and months is not that neo-liberal capitalism is replaced by socialism, a new green politics or even social liberalism but, unfortunately, by authoritarian capitalism. We must, however, humbly admit that the Nordic identity has weakened in the last 15 years as we have been been overwhelmed by globalisation and EU-integration. finance and climate. The sixth, related to the previous point, is how to move away from a statist process and institutionalize civil society participation in all key areas of economic decisionmaking. On 11th July 2000, the African Union was adopted during the Lomé Summit of the OAU. Even under the condition of functional interdependence globally of the competing blocs, climate change, development failures and resource depletion combined with nuclear proliferation and the evolution of new military technologies may easily lead to completely new types of wars with planetary consequences. In 1991, the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) was launched with the aim of fostering regional integration among its four original members—Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. The second is how to ensure that building complementarity among economies does not reproduce the old, unequal division of labor between stronger and weaker economies. 4. Regional cooperation presents major opportunities if the physical and cultural mobility of peoples in the region and between them is enhanced. Chapter II offers an overview of the regional integration process, including progress on intra-regional trade liberalization, the deepening and the widening of CARICOM. Recent key developments, such as the text and ratification process of the Lisbon Treaty, the formation of Europe’s new global economic policy, and the struggles over the working time, services and chemical legislation at the European level, show that corporate interests and narrowly defined economic goals still tend to dominate EU-policies. Regional protection and strategic cooperation should be built with a clear commitment to global solidarity. 0000008047 00000 n He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. 0000007449 00000 n Challenges of Regional Integration By Thomas Wallgren * Presentation given at International Conference of governments and social movements “Regional Integration: an opportunity to face the crises” (21 and 22 July 2009, stuff Asunción del Paraguay) Without a commitment to peaceful cooperation and civilisational alternatives zero-sum competition for growth and unsustainable life-styles among nations and regions is likely to dominate global politics in the 21st century. In Africa, many such challenges affect poor peopleÕs lives in areas ranging from human security and mobility to rural livelihoods, trade, infrastructure, food security, environment This is a video giving information on Factors Hindering Regional Integration, under the topic Challenges and Opportunity of Regional Integration . A. The global record seems to be that industrial growth economies are not capable of overcoming poverty and deprivation everywhere. 6. Thomas Wallgren The fifth is how to avoid a technocrat-led process and promote instead the democratization of decision-making in all areas of the economy. A commitment to open regionalism and deep integration would help address some of these problems and create a healthy basis for regional and global trade integration. Sumario 14. Both ideas are now in a crisis. reserve currency must work under democratic political guidance and pursue socially and ecologically responsible monetary policies; 0000002021 00000 n 0000004645 00000 n It has been seen, first, as a peace project and, secondly, increasingly in later years, as a project for benign, political governance of corporate driven globalisation. (In the EU this is still not the case!) The opposite politics of regional integration which allows mobility only internally and is closed to the outer world, with exceptions allowed only for selfish reasons or on market premises is a false and dangerous model. The lesson to be learnt is that regional cooperation must, much more than has been the case in Europe, be built democratically, with explicit consent and support by the citizens. 5. The elected parliament should not be subordinate to regional non-elected bodies, but the extent of its powers needs to be controlled from lower levels. He serves as an elected member of the city council of Helsinki and is co-chair of the social-democratic group. The deficit is structural: decision-making in the EU is so undemocratic that, ironically, the EU, if it would be a nation, would not qualify for membership in the EU. The EAC seems to be the most vibrant Regional Economic Community (REC) in the Southern hemisphere and is tremendously advancing in its integration process: however, crucial issues remains to … 1. Peace-politics cannot imply thoughtless pacifism. For this reason the EU carries a vast democratic deficit. (3) Regional cooperation for global governance needs to be built democratically from below. The industrial growth centred development model that first emerged in Europe and North America in the 18th to 20th century needs to be seriously reconsidered. In order to curb excess corporate influence strong measures must be taken at all times. Technological changes have made possible deep changes in the economy. Los puntos que el Paraguay plantea. Coalition for comprehensive democracy, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam in Finland. A decade ago, there was much discussion about when Asia might achieve full economic integration, including … The USA carries the main burden of classical warfare, the EU steps in economically and logistically in the aftermath of the war, takinmg care of crisis management. These experiences are at an early stage and yet they already contain lessons for other parts of the world. All in all, it is clear by now that radical shifts in power structures, economic distribution or national or international policies are not easily within reach. We need a new internationalism that is not founded on state to state cooperation or market integration. 1. 2. Nevertheless, for historical, cultural and social reasons the global North cannot be trusted too much in the search for new civilisational visions and new socially and ecologically enriching models for progress and development. regional integration in Africa Regional cooperation and integration are deemed vital to tackle development challenges that cannot be solved at the national level. In this a people-to-people cooperation and diplomacy, as pursued for instance in the World Social Forum and by a multitude of innovative smaller groups and movementsduring the past years, can play an important role. The evolution of constitutionalism in the post-communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe: some lessons for the post-Soviet space. DESCARGUE LA PRESENTACION COMPLETA EN PDF, (Speech at the Conference on “Regional Integration: an Opportunity Presented by the Crisis”, look Universidad de Deportes, Asuncion, Paraguay, July 21-22, 2009.). The state is back in the economy. 0000042727 00000 n Even quite conservative new models for measuring overall success in development, such as the so called Happy Planet Index, indicate that life-conditions in the US, Sweden, Germany and other similar countries reached an all-time high in th 1970s and haved steadily deteriorated since then. Without these impressive ideas European integration could not have been brought to its present level. level integration. For this, effective, almost excessive formal veto powers by smaller members states in the regional organisations are needed to counter the effective and lasting, greater political weight of larger members. “The reason was for regions to trade within themselves first,” said the real estate businessman, pointing out that little integration has been achieved so far. 5. As we have seen in South Asia, Europe, North America and elsewhere the consequence is often un upsurge of xenophobic identity-politics, increasing militarisation and securitisation and even terror by states and non-state agencies. Donors and Institutions Supporting Regional Cooperation and +  The political weight and influence of large corporations tends to be relatively greater on regional than on national and local levels of political decision-making. This, it may be argued, is the new logic of Western, imperial military hegemony. E-mail:  [email protected] Accepted 12 September, 2008 Regional integration is increasingly being accepted as essential in facilitating economic and political development. European and Eurasian integration initiatives: constitutional challenges. They should all be seen as symptoms of an underlying cultural crisis; a crisis of development models and the fundamental aspirations and ideals of modernization. These can include for instance protection and support of micro and small enterprise as well as of local knowledge systems and forms or democracy, the launch of local and regional currencies with high social and ecological value, and so forth. One: the fundamental principle of democracy, that all state power and all power of regional authorities belongs to the people, must always be recognized formally. It has the largest internal market, the most ambitious common political instruments and the tightest juridical integration. * If we manage to correct the imbalances mentioned the European Union shows that cultural and social solidarity between peoples with a long negative record of wars is possible and can be promoted through regional cooperation. Another is the subsidization of the oil needs of 14 Caribbean countries by Venezuela, which sells fuel to them at 40 per cent off the world price. Everywhere people recognise that the ruling elites are failing and at a loss. The repeated side-stepping of the outcome of national referenda on EU-issues, such as the French and Dutch rejection of the EU constitution  and the Irish rejection of the Lisbon Treaty is rapidly leading Europe to a very serious and deep crisis in democratic legitimacy and participation.

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