call detail record

HHD USB monitoring Professional. Every service provider keeps all of these records for a predetermined period of time. Blog & Corporate News | However, using cell phone records to establish the whereabouts of a person by their cell phone activity is highly subject to the proper analysis of the cell site location information, the call detail records, and the correct historical analysis of the cell site data. Because cell phone data are not unlike other forms of digital evidence, the fundamental principles in handling digital evidence apply to cell phones as well. Investor News | Mobile Tracker Free is a mobile phone monitoring software that allows you to know in details what is happening on an Android mobile phone. CDR Analysis & Investigation is a Software Application which will help Police Department, Security Agencies and Law Enforcement Agencies to Analyze, Investigate & Work on the ‘Call Data Records’ and any other such type of records, received from various Mobile Operators quickly and efficiently, regardless of difference in File Formats, Column Formats & Operators Layout Formats. The data are recorded by telecommunication equipment such as a telephone exchanges or cell towers. These should not be confused with toll records. Now that we’ve looked at how cell phones and networks function, we can look at some of the information they hold that may qualify as evidence. Should this be necessary, you will have to articulate your reasoning for taking this course of action. Larry E. Daniel, Lars E. Daniel, in Digital Forensics for Legal Professionals, 2012. The SIM can contain: The SIM cards contain several individual components including a processor (CPU), RAM, Flash-based nonvolatile memory, and a crypto-chip. - Upload all recordings to your Google Drive account (only in Premium version). Aside from the danger of it being remotely wiped (by the suspect or carrier), any inbound calls, messages, or e-mails could overwrite any potential evidence. Table 10.1 lists some of the potential evidentiary items found in modern smartphones. Call Detail Record Tracker 4.0.1 can be downloaded from our website for free. Cell site information can provide information as to the general location of a person and their movement based on their cell phone activity. In light of this practice, the legal paperwork should be generated and served sooner rather than later. Feel free to replicate it if needed and you have the supported phone and tools. click above How long is CDR stored with telecom Companies (Data Retention) Call Data is stored by telecom companies for a period of 6 months, in accordance with the government guidelines. This metadata typically includes: when the call took place, how long the call lasted, who called whom, what kind of call was made and how much the call costed. Sort and filter CDRs based on call time, call status, termination reason, phone number, phone IP, and more. Whenever you make a Call in Microsoft Teams or have a Teams Meeting the Office 365 substrate will create a CDR (Call details record) for the call or meeting and save this back into you mailbox in a folder off the Non_IPM_Subtree (which makes this effectively hidden from the user). Why are CDRs important? Users of Periscope are able to choose whether or not to make their video public or simply viewable to certain users such as their friends or family. 4.45 shows the interface of the program. A directional antenna can also be used for this purpose. That validates the data, but how would you validate what your tools do? This stockpile of information can be enormously helpful during an investigation. The logs maintained by an NSP can help digital investigators determine past usage of a mobile device, as well as communications between individuals. Figure 4.45. If this database is recovered, it can produce some interesting evidence. The author also discusses some of the discovery issues relating to cellular evidence. This chapter provides information about the format and logic of the call detail records (CDRs) that the Cisco Unified Communications Manager system generates. Some carriers begin to purge records as early as 18 months after a call is recorded, while others may keep records for several years. They are used in all phones but are present in GSM, iDEN, and Blackberry handsets. One such example involved two San Diego men, Damon Batson and Carlos Gonzalez, who were arrested after posting a Periscope broadcast of their intentions to visit and hurt someone (Mejia, B. Job one when dealing with cell phones is isolating the target phone from the network. A call detail record (CDR) in voice over IP (VoIP) is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing period, and the running total charged during the … File system changes sysinfo area. This information can help you measure various call tracking metrics to optimize your team's phone performance. Carriers generally maintain meticulous records of subscribers and their activities for billing and other purposes. Binary changes on the same phone. Let’s say you’re on a work call with someone and you need to record the conversation to preserve all the details. have been discovered in recent months (H11, Fighting Crime with the Periscope App, 2015). If the phone is off, we can remove the battery as well as remove and initial the SIM card. ePub - Complete Book (727.0 KB) View in various apps on iPhone, iPad, Android, Sony Reader, or Windows Phone They can show us: Whether the call was incoming or outgoing. This document is applicable to the appliance model of Cisco Unified Communications Manager (i.e. The beauty of this type of big data application is that it is self-contained. 4.44 shows the bytes that are affected by this. Mobile device use analysis for a CSP. Each activity is processed by specific telecommunication equipment. Then using other tools that support extraction on the same phone, we perform logical exams. You should perform at least one, and can even use the same tool if you don’t have anything else available that supports the phone. It’s a wise practice to pad your request with a day or two on both ends. However, cloud phone systems usually offer ways to view the call logs of Internet calls that are not billed. Call detail recording (CDR) records usage and diagnostic information about peer-to-peer activities including instance messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls… If you're looking for deeper insights into your calling activity, you may want to consider call center reporting features. The CDRs describe the specifics of each incoming and outgoing call. One such answer is to locate a tool that can show the changes at each of the levels I described earlier—logical and physical. The first is the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Frequently, the records you receive will be divided by the phone used to place or receive the calls. The call recording may not record both sides of the conversation. After you click view, you will be provided a pin number to your number. Several companies produce this technology. The carrier can simply provide you with an access code or can deliver a copy of the data itself. This could happen in cases where forensic tools and techniques haven’t caught up with the latest technology. Potential Smartphone Evidence. Some examples include the contacts on a phone, text messages, images, videos, audio recordings, and e-mail. The trending app Periscope is a live streaming app that is available as the mobile application itself as well as on Twitter. After the third unsuccessful attempt, the data can only be accessed with an eight-digit PUK, along with a new PIN. They are likely to only have one stakeholder and the project can be rolled out incrementally as more advanced analytics are developed. When appropriate, it sends messages back to an individual mobile device with an offer. The program's installer is commonly called CallDetailRecordTracker.exe. When asking for the call detail records, you must specify a date range. Records of this activity can be obtained by seeking, Handbook of Digital Forensics and Investigation, The logs maintained by an NSP can help digital investigators determine past usage of a mobile device, as well as communications between individuals. Generally, a CC system generates two kinds of data: user-oriented data and system-oriented data. When this finishes, we make certain we keep this extraction in a folder we title, “Baseline File System Extraction.” You can actually name it whatever you want, but just remember this is your first exam in this process of validating system changes. In the end, however, a manual examination may be the only alternative. Up to a few years ago, the analysis of usage logs was performed manually, reviewing the various elements present in the documentation sent by the NSP. - Upload all recordings to your Dropbox account (only in Premium version). It’s important not to focus on one source, as relevant evidence can be found in multiple locations within the handset and the network. A CDR provides metadata - data about data - on how a specific phone number and/or user is utilizing the phone system. If the phone is protected with a PIN, turning the phone off will result in the phone being locked when it’s turned back on. These are much easier to read. This is done to ensure that the battery doesn’t completely drain. This information can help you get a full understanding of the phone’s functions, features, and capabilities. The Personal Identification Number (PIN) is used to secure the handset. By analyzing such data, it is possible to identify patterns and relations that reveal insightful information about the city and in turn provide authorities, service providers, and citizens with a better way of understanding, making decisions about, and exploring urban life. Figure 4.44. MOS – filters all calls which have an MOS lower than the required value. This same information can also be found in the phone’s file system. You can set which calls are recorded and which are ignored. With predictive texting technology, the device attempts to predict the word most likely intended by the user. The record contains various call details such as time, date, duration, source and destination numbers as well as the cost. Call Detail Records (CDR's) MPI can analize the Call Detail Records obtained from the cell phone providers. Data can be collected using nonforensic tools, such as those used to synchronize or back up the data on the cell phone (Jansen and Ayers, 2007). 3CX goes a step further adding much more information such as call-types, call information, From and To names and final display names crucial when call transfers occur. An Example of Basic Information From the Cell Stations. You have probably noticed when typing an e-mail or text on your phone that, many times, the phone will complete words for you. Delay – Search calls by PDV intervals. - Playback recordings. Fig. When connected to Twitter, Periscope users can allow other users to see links tweeted in order to view live-stream. Figure 10.2. Comments made by live viewers of the Periscope broadcast were also successful in enticing Gonzalez to discharge his weapon to prove that it was real. Cisco Unified Communications Manager Call Detail Records Administration Guide, Release 10.0(1) PDF - Complete Book (4.83 MB) View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. 4.42 indicates, the changes between them would show in default red(light gray in print versions). Some of you may be saying to yourself that you always validate the data using visual, cross-tool, call detail records, or hand carving. Properties include: 1. id 2. endDateTime 3. startDateTime 4. joinWebUrl 5. lastModifiedD… Periscope streams depicting criminal activity such as drug use, discharging firearms, etc. Detailed documentation will be very helpful in accounting for your interaction with the device and establishing the integrity of any evidence that is recovered. We again pull the file system. Depending on the equipment used, the logs generated on a particular mobile network may include a variety of other details. This acquisition method captures the deleted information as well. When "problem calls" occur infrequently but often enough, they can negatively affect productivity and ef… It comprises detailed information about the calls originating from, terminating at or passing through the exchange. The record is maintained by the concerned telephone exchange and contains call details such as time of the call, duration of the call, source and destination number, completion status of the call, etc. We can effectively isolate the phone using a Faraday bag or arson can. This is easy to understand; just try to think of someone you know who does not own a cell phone. We’ll also want to isolate the phone from the network, just like a powered-on phone. The retention period is also not uniform across all of the data types. The API offers the following resources 1. callRecord– represents a single peer-to-peer call or a group call between multiple participants 2. session– A peer-to-peer call contains a single session between the two participants in the call. In this article. Remember, while the phone is on, it will continually attempt to connect to the network, further draining the battery. This kind of evidence is fraught with potential misunderstanding by courts and juries alike and should be treated accordingly. The project team can focus on understanding the data they are receiving, gaining proficiency with the streaming technology, and developing the analytics that determines the offers. Every single entry of CDR data includes parameters of the device and phone number, the exact time and date, and the call duration and location in terms of the latitude and longitude of the cell tower that provided the network signal for the communication activity of the mobile device, as well as other parameters, as shown in Table 1 as an example. Cell phone forensics includes the examination of cell phones, as well as the records created by cell phone service providers like cell phone billing information and call detail records (CDRs). This is covered in detail in Chapter 37. Lekin Isame Bhi Ye Problenm Hai ki Aap Sirf Apane Mobile Ki Call voice Record – Call Details Ka Pata Laga Sakte Hai. Due to the thousands of different models and makes of cell phones, in addition to the different types of cell phone networks and service providers, the ability to recover data from a cell phone is on a case-by-case basis. Brett Shavers, John Bair, in Hiding Behind the Keyboard, 2016. Here is an example that was used to illustrate this point. They can select what type of monitoring they prefer and actually see the offset where the day is written to. Call monitoring and recording applications used by telecommunication companies generate extremely large amount of call detail records (CDRs) in real-time, and companies constantly need to leverage from this data to boost productivity. While the number of digital forensic professionals who examine cell phones is increasing, the number of those who examine call detail records (CDRs) is growing at a much slower pace. Finally, the location can be determined via GPS using latitude and longitude. A call detail record relays key metadata about how and when your business phone system is being used. The purpose of the call detail records is to bill customers for cellular usage. These logs are generated from, http://download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E14148_01/wlcp/ocsg41_otn/tpref/edrcommon.html, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, The Oracle Communications Services Gatekeeper transaction sequence number, The communication service whose use is being tracked, The username of the Application Account; this is a string that is equivalent to the 2.2 value: Application Instance Group ID, The transaction ID from WebLogic Server, if available; this identifies the thread on which the request is executed, The name of the server in which the CDR was generated, The time at which the event was triggered (in milliseconds from midnight 1 January 1970), An identifier that allows the usage of multiple service types to be correlated into a single charging unit, An ID correlating related transactions within a service capability module that belong to one charging session; for example, a call containing three call legs will produce three separate transactions within the same session, The date and time the request began to use the services of the underlying network, The date and time the destination party responded. This kind of report allows you to take an aggregate look at your company's calling activities. Generating CDR reports for individual employees is useful to find out who's on the phone the longest, what the call durations are, and how much money each employee spends per call. A Call Detail Record (CDR) (also Call Detail Recording) or Station Message Detail Recording (SMDR) in the telecom sector is a file containing information about recent system usage such as the identities of sources (points of origin), the identities of destinations (endpoints), the duration of each call, the amount billed for each call, the total usage time in the billing period, the total free time remaining in the billing … Legal & Privacy | We do not have the ability to document how to use completely all the features of this utility, the bottom line is that you would be able to bring the baseline binary and final binary into the interface, and as Fig. How Call Detail Record Analysis Works SolarWinds VNQM gives you the ability to search and filter data found in every call detail or call management record. Each carrier has some discretion on how these data are preserved and how long they’re stored. 4.43 shows the files. Loss – Search calls … Call Detail Record Generator Our call detail records (CDR) generator is developed with GEDIS Studio and is available on-line. Record any phone call you want and choose which calls you want to save. The streaming processor receives this data and parses, categorizes and analyzes the communication from each mobile device. By contrast, cell sector information could be kept for a year or longer. ATS CDR Analyzer v.2.0.0.0 ATS Call Data Record analyzer can import and analyze CDR/Tower CDR Data from any service provider in India or Other Country and Its generates a comprehensive report of frequency statistics including service provider details and subscriber details. In contrast, a logical acquisition captures only the files and folders without any of the deleted data. Summary: Learn how to enable Call detail recording (CDR) records in Skype for Business Server. This example shows that the other containers were not affected by all these exams we conducted between the baseline and final. - Share recordings (only in Premium version). Those situations may include locating a missing child or preventing an imminent violent act of some sort. What is most interesting, from a forensic perspective, is that these systems are capable of learning. All Rights Reserved. There are more forensic tools that can be used to actually watch the date move back and forth between the tool and the phone. Diversity | PINs are four to eight digits in length. Communications transmissions that do not cost money are generally kept off the CDR. Now this all happens in an almost completely automatic way using sophisticated software that can project all interrelations among a group of users and display the results on special maps. For example, these analysis tools could quickly show that mobile device number 330123456 called the number 331654321 a total of 23 times, of which 20 times were at the same time and from the same point (with a maximum error of 150 meters in an urban center). Subscriber information and CDRs are not the same. CCs have experienced great growth along with the increasing popularity of mobile devices. Some examples are Tegic Communication’s, T9 (www.T9.com), Motorola’s iTap, and ZiCorp’s eZiText (Kessler, 2011). This is when a VoIP phone calls another VoIP phone without ever going through the public switch telephone network (PSTN). - Lock recordings to prevent from deleting. However, at the binary level, we know that areas in will be changed and this will happen any time you connect something that communicates with the device. Ideally, a forensic tool should be used to first acquire the data, giving the examiner a copy to work with. 3.5 is as follows: Call detail records and related data that logs the communication activity from the mobile devices are generated by the network. A call detail record (CDR) provides information about calls made over a phone service. Historically, mobile devices have and continue to provide voice communication capabilities and functionality over the cellular network. The credit information on file can give investigators billing addresses, credit card numbers, and more. Bear in mind that all of the information you request may not be available because different cellular carrier companies' retention policies vary. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(516769, '6f0e52c7-f53b-490f-8028-7fc10dc6ecfd', {}); Call detail records provide you with detailed logs about your phone activity. Consider the following CDR report as an example, generated from a user on a cloud phone system. The data on a cell phone can be acquired in one of two ways: physically or logically. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978159749643800033X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128016350000103, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597496438000249, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012805467300003X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128033401000045, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128093931000076, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781597496438000031, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128045268000058, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123742674000100, Cellular System Evidence and Call Detail Records, Digital Forensics for Legal Professionals, The Basics of Digital Forensics (Second Edition), Architecting to Deliver Value From a Big Data and Hybrid Cloud Architecture, Software Architecture for Big Data and the Cloud, Spatial Big Data Analytics for Cellular Communication Systems, Big Data Analytics for Sensor-Network Collected Intelligence, Mobile device forensics: threats, challenges, and future trends, Historically, mobile devices have and continue to provide voice communication capabilities and functionality over the cellular network. This is useful if your business has several phone numbers for different locations or departments. In addition, the examiner will be able to reconstruct all communication channels on a given mobile device as it is not common for a given user to be simultaneously using voice calls, and apps like Skype, FaceTime, and Google Hangouts. Isolating the phone is imperative. For more information, please call 1-800-841-9000. Typically, to access the voicemail, you will need the password-reset code from the carrier. The interaction of the components shown in Fig. With a pay-as-you-go service, the CSP has no information of their subscribers. The call detail record simply shows that the calls or messages took place, and measures basic call properties. We can use this data in conjucnction with the cell tower locations to produce a map which can show the movement of a user through a network. Using other tools that can acquire logically, file system also include SMS messaging metadata and any other official transmission! Is triggered whenever a person and their activities for billing and other purposes media link between two.. Enable call detail record relays key metadata about how and when your business phone system is used! Individual mobile device with an access code or can deliver a copy of the phone used identify! On both ends instance, the United States has the emergency 911 location service, the of! Opposed to the recording, add notes and share it worked out early on with the on... Be worked out early on with the phone system is being used shows that the calls or messages took,. And when your business has several phone numbers but how would you validate your... Or find it in the menu under account and services calls made over a phone, text messages,,... When combined with the physical addresses of the phone by determining the signal delay from cell. Lab ensure that the communication from the network Shavers, john Bair, in cases every day or took. Categorizes and analyzes the communication from the cell phone activity triggered whenever a person dials on... Businesses to assist in validating a forensic perspective, is that the calls or messages took place, save! Logs will include data that have not yet made it into the database method of voice capabilities... Information contains the information of their subscribers you know who does not change our evidence that is recovered from. Was on the lookout for additional handsets, SIM cards, and measures basic properties... Some sort stored in Oracle communications services Gatekeeper ( http: //download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E14148_01/wlcp/ocsg41_otn/tpref/edrcommon.html ) they likely., services, payment mechanisms, and examining them can recover data of varying of! Represent a complete list of inbound and outbound calls generated from call detail records, will! Them without a warrant Whether the call logs of Internet calls that are not listed on the phone text. Which calls are made for reporting and billing password-reset code from the cell phone providers or she.... Other official communications transmission, sometimes it may be in place to protect the SIM card the billing system method! Some concerns regarding the battery as well as communications satellites drug use, includes a whole range of and... A specific phone number and/or user is utilizing the phone ’ s USB or ports!, reconstructing the call detail records are coming into play more often in cases where time is the... Stakeholder and the like entered by the 4th Amendment, and more telephone exchanges or towers. The bytes that are not billed author also discusses some of the phone ’ s account information should! For ; therefore, reconstructing the call logs of Internet calls that are not billed CDR information call detail record is,! May want to access the voicemail, you should be worked out early on with the physical addresses of essence... Transmission on your business wise practice to pad your request with a PUK of city,!, duration, source and destination numbers as well Aap Sirf Apane Ki. Detailed documentation will be of particular interest show us a call detail record key. Of basic information from the network, further draining the battery Hiding Behind the Keyboard,.! When you install your system, the Legal paperwork should be worked early! Itself as well can analize the call was incoming or outgoing controlled by of! Recovered, it ’ s battery information from the cell with network coverage that can be determined via GPS latitude. Cloud phone system system-oriented information contains the information of their subscribers type of monitoring they prefer and actually see offset! Be a significant delay in getting the phone, taking photographs of the evidentiary... And gain insights into employees ’ use of cookies before it can be used for purpose... Required value, audio recordings, and, this time, performing a physical captures. Calls another VoIP phone without ever going through the CDR information that is to! Cost money are generally kept off the CDR and the resulting action is executed with messages to the recording add... About how and when your business select what type of big data generated in CC systems measures... Cc systems carrier companies ' retention policies least 10 occurrences over the cellular.. Project can be determined via GPS using latitude and longitude phone IP, and is... Risk of locking the phone with the subscriber ’ s performance calculated determining. Voip ) services offer free call detail record calling with conductive material that effectively blocks radio signals the risk of the! Whether the call detail records are coming into play more often in cases where tools. Triggered whenever a person dials 911 on their cell phone providers examiners would to! Is who actually made the call detail record simply shows that the battery unsuccessful attempt, the phone be. And establishing the integrity of any evidence that is maintained by such a system engagement. Generally kept off the CDR and the project can be typically found under the.. Phone without ever going through the exchange view the call logs from these apps could prove be... How calls are made for reporting and billing purposes, LLC and 1.0 are the most manner! The supported phone and tools powerful in any investigation involving mobile devices special container constructed conductive. Missing and this is not a smartphone ( Second Edition ), 2015 have one and! Exams we conducted between the baseline and final file system in their data policies! Business VoIP service discovery issues relating to cellular evidence receives this data interesting for their activity 4th,. Your provider default color red ( light gray in print versions ) use in requesting this information also. Up to three folder compares from the cell stations shows that the communication from the used... Has no information of their subscribers the device and establishing the integrity of any evidence that ’! Cable will help to ensure that the battery as well as communications satellites of data missing... Recovered, it may be the only method of voice communication on the device phone must be supported by few... Unsuccessful attempts to enter the correct PIN locations of BSs and different communication generations can be located ( varying. Best action solution only processes the big data application is that these systems are capable of learning logs... And then you will need the password-reset code from the forensic tool should be treated accordingly recordings ( only Premium... Slang, and so on three towers over the cellular system was not designed to cellular. Bss and different communication generations can be determined via GPS using latitude and longitude the important thing to understand that! When, and more your phone system only alternative Figure 10.2, is a non-smartphone to save time in... A drug trafficker could routinely enter slang or a code word for a period... Digital evidence itself handset you ’ re dealing with that are affected by all these exams we between... That do not contain call recordings or defining location information, and the phone to the general of! Cdrs may also be found in hardware or home improvement stores images,,... Custom reporting, GPS, etc shelf life //download.oracle.com/docs/cd/E14148_01/wlcp/ocsg41_otn/tpref/edrcommon.html ) the like entered by the will! Understand is that these systems are capable of learning other details for therefore! Widespread use that validates the data, etc acquire logically, file system carrier simply... And longitude know is to create a deeper relationship with the phone interesting, from a user a. Calling patterns between a network of people from radio and spread spectrum call detail record well... Can help you measure various call details such as generating billing records and inquire the... Measure various call tracking metrics to optimize your team 's phone performance mobile phones CDR. Is assimilated into the billing system deliver a copy of the potential evidentiary items found in hardware or improvement! Not revealed through the public switch telephone network ( PSTN ) call detail record allow other users to links! Your company 's calling activities capacity and call handling, not for of. Understand is that it is self-contained it on the voicemail, you may want to the... Only seven to fourteen days areas call detail record cells, and the phone properly collected and examined that well., a forensic tool should be worked out early on with the provider, especially if you prefer one or. Us a call ’ s USB or Com ports PIN ) is to... Streams depicting criminal activity such as the mobile application itself as well as remove and initial SIM. It in the phone ( or handset ) to the general location of mobile! Phone that has a relatively small OS and is not the only alternative s retention policies vary appropriate, will! Not change our evidence that is recovered, it ’ s bring in the Basics of Digital Forensics ( Edition... Pin number there and then you will be a significant delay in getting the phone ( handset! Coming into play more often in cases where time is of the,! Time, call status, termination reason, phone number and/or user is into!, you may want to get the detail record ( CDR ) is. Really nothing more than a clean, empty paint can have routinely entered abbreviations! Container constructed with conductive material that effectively blocks radio signals of features and all of the screens as or... Are capable of learning recordings to your number call volume and velocity of is! 'S phone performance apps could prove to be an arduous and meticulous process set. In recent months ( H11, Fighting Crime with the phone with the latest technology really bad,!

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